The Sokal affair , also called the Sokal hoax ,  was a demonstrative scholarly hoax performed by Alan Sokal , a physics professor at New York University and University College London. In , Sokal submitted an article to Social Text , an academic journal of postmodern cultural studies. The submission was an experiment to test the journal's intellectual rigor , and specifically to investigate whether "a leading North American journal of cultural studies—whose editorial collective includes such luminaries as Fredric Jameson and Andrew Ross —[would] publish an article liberally salted with nonsense if a it sounded good and b it flattered the editors' ideological preconceptions. It proposed that quantum gravity is a social and linguistic construct. At that time, the journal did not practice academic peer review and it did not submit the article for outside expert review by a physicist.
Use and Abuse of Computers
Use and Abuse of Computers - Words | Bartleby
Since the advent of the cyberpunk genre, a number of derivatives of cyberpunk have become recognized in their own right as distinct subgenres in speculative fiction , especially in science fiction. Rather than necessarily sharing the digitally- and mechanically-focused setting of cyberpunk, these derivatives can display other futuristic, or even retrofuturistic , qualities that are drawn from or analogous to cyberpunk: a world built on one particular technology that is extrapolated to a highly sophisticated level this may even be a fantastical or anachronistic technology, akin to retrofuturism , a gritty transreal urban style, or a particular approach to social themes. Steampunk , one of the most well-known of these subgenres, has been defined as a "kind of technological fantasy ;"  others in this category sometimes also incorporate aspects of science fantasy and historical fantasy. American author Bruce Bethke coined the term cyberpunk in his short story of the same name, proposing it as a label for a new generation of ' punk ' teenagers inspired by the perceptions inherent to the Information Age. Science fiction author Lawrence Person , in defining postcyberpunk , summarized the characteristics of cyberpunk thusly:. Classic cyberpunk characters were marginalized, alienated loners who lived on the edge of society in generally dystopic futures where daily life was impacted by rapid technological change, an ubiquitous datasphere of computerized information, and invasive modification of the human body. The relevance of cyberpunk as a genre to punk subculture is debatable and further hampered by the lack of a defined 'cyberpunk' subculture.
Uses and Abuses of Internet
By Brett T. Williams Joint Force Quarterly Commanders must grasp the role of cyberspace in national security, but that is a challenge without a ready way to visualize it. There is hope insofar as we can use extant ideas and language to conceptualize and teach cyberspace operations.
Can you imagine being stopped by the police on your way to an everyday activity, soon to find that it was all because of the color of your skin? Dear Governor Brown, In this letter I wanted to discuss an epidemic that has occured in America these past few years, which would be police brutality towards African Americans. The Declaration of Independence was created to protect the inalienable rights that all Americans receive at birth, yet police brutality continues to threaten the rights of African Americans everywhere. Police everywhere need to be given mandatory psychological tests in order to gain awareness of racial bias in law enforcement and allow citizens to slowly gain […].