Introduction Criminological theories are theories about the nature, extent, cause and control of criminal behaviour, of which the main types are biological, psychological, and sociological theories, and certain individual theories like rational choice theory Akers, As governments use criminological theories to formulate crime prevention policies, epistemologically unsound criminological theories can lead to wide-ranging ramifications. Thus, it is important that they are epistemologically sound. However, criminologists do not understand the causes of crime well. Certain traits alone cannot determine criminality. We are born with certain traits and these traits along with certain environmental factors can cause criminality Siegel,
Classical Theory in Criminology
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In this unit, I learned that cybercrime refers to activities in which computers, telephones, cellular equipment and other technological devices are used for illicit purposes. Speer , states that computers are the most predominant form of information and communication technology used to commit cybercrime. Cybercrime is classified as Type 1 which is usually undertaken at a single event from the perspective of the victim, alternatively Type II refers to numerous activities in the cybercrime process. Examples of Type I cybercrime includes keystroke loggers, viruses, rootkits, Trojan horses whereas, type II examples include, cyberstalking and harassment, child predation, extortion, corporate espionage, cyber terrorism. This evolution of technology and globalization over the recent years has now linked countries around the world, improving communication and business however creating a gateway for cybercrime. In my discussion on the question, how the use of Information and Communication Technology has assisted in the perpetration of this type of crime, I was in total agreement that the evolution of technology and globalization in recent years has now linked countries around the world, improved communication and created new platform for business, for example, Facebook, Amazon and Netflix. Due to this kind of global connection, perpetrators now have a platform to engage in cybercrime which I believe can be done with grate ease with great difficulty in being detected.
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Criminal Behavior First, Crime is an intentional violation of law, committed without legal defense or excuse. It is generally, but not always a conversion of a communities values into laws. Criminal Behavior, also known as Deviance; can be formal or informal. Formal deviance includes criminal violations of laws. Informal deviance is a violation of social norms.
In the 18th century criminologists such as Jeremy Bentham, Cesare Bonesana-Beccaria and Cesare Lombroso all established criminological theories, in an attempt to achieve this goal. The most influential theories are known as the Classical and Positivist perspectives. Both of these theories have had a long-term influence on the current Criminal Justice System.