Essay Examples. The battle consisted of an offensive by the British and French armies against the German Army, which, since invading France in August , had occupied large areas of that country. The Battle of the Somme was one of the largest battles of the First World War; by the time fighting had petered out in late autumn the forces involved had suffered more than 1 million casualties, making it one of the bloodiest military operations ever recorded. Chaired by General Joseph Joffre, the commander-in-chief of the French Army, Allied representatives agreed on a concerted offensive against the Central Powers in by the French, British, Italian and Russian armies. The Somme offensive was to be the Anglo-French contribution to this general offensive, and was intended to create a rupture in the German line, which could then be exploited with a decisive blow.
History of Germany (1945–1990)
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Spanning over a decade-and-a-half of his remarkably prodigious career, this highly accessible collection addresses many of the issues that continue to dominate the political and cultural climate of Europe today. In Europe East and West , Davies argues for a comprehensive view that challenges Western stereotypes and no longer ignores the history and experience of Eastern Europe. He shows that the conventional exclusion of Central and Eastern Europe has led to serious shortcomings in our understanding of the Second World War. The essays collected in this volume confront prevalent distortions and prejudices. Taken together, they also form a meditation on the art of history writing itself.
When you think of the Renaissance period in Europe, what springs to mind? But have you heard of the Jagiellonians? Your answer will depend on where you are based in Europe: from Poland where the Jagiellonians are celebrated as a powerful dynasty, to the Baltics where they are sometimes seen as betrayers of local pagan heritage, to the UK where knowledge about their year, Renaissance-period reign is only just beginning to emerge. Under a project funded by the European Research Council , Dr. Natalia Nowakowska, Professor of European History at the University of Oxford, is exploring how European Renaissance history is perceived and remembered differently across Europe through the lens of the Jagiellonian dynasty.